Risk and protective factors demonstrate how we can better inform our prevention strategies. Risk factors are associated with a higher likelihood of sexual violence perpetration while protective factors can have the opportunity to decrease the likelihood of experiencing sexual violence by mitigating risk. Although these contributing factors should not be considered direct causes, they are based upon research that can inform best practices for prevention strategies. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed a list of risk and protective factors based upon the four levels of the Social-Ecological Model – individual, relationship, community, and societal.
- Societal norms that support sexual violence
- Societal norms that support male superiority and sexual entitlement
- Societal norms that maintain women’s inferiority and sexual submissiveness
- Weak laws and policies related to sexual violence and gender equity
- High levels of crime and other forms of violence
Last modified: 6/15/2022